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Splicing: All Ropes Are Not Created Equal

 

All About Leaf Feeders

These pests chew, extract and sponge up the very material that’s needed by trees to keep them vigorous and healthy

Insects feed on all parts of trees — roots, leaves, transport system, heartwood; each can be damaging in their own way. Keeping a handle on the most damaging of these is a key component of providing good tree care for your clients. A little research and a lot of effective communication goes a long way toward delivering a quality insect control program that does the job for the trees, puts money in your pocket and makes your customers happy.

Outcomes, results, consequences

Why focus attention on leaf feeders? In short, these critters are plant food-maker removers. They chew, extract and sponge up the very material that’s needed by trees to keep them vigorous and healthy. If not controlled, they’ll slowly cause a decline in a tree that, over time, can weaken it to the point that it may not recover.

The good news is that in most cases, an otherwise healthy tree can withstand one year’s worth of defoliation and still recover. Two years of defoliation… maybe, but maybe not. Beyond that, it gets pretty dicey.

How does this occur? Because leaves are the primary creator of necessary plant nutrition, removal of or damage to them brings about a need for the use of stored carbohydrates in the stems and branches to produce a new set of leaves. If the feeding occurs in spring, the usual result is the growth of new leaves to replace the ones lost earlier. If the damage is in summer or fall, the result is a prevention of the food that would have been made if the leaves had remained on the tree for the full season.

Another reason to focus attention on leaf feeders: they’re visual to the customer. Clients may not be able to see borer damage or stem girdling roots in the early stages, but they’ll surely see beetles and sawflies.

Scouting and monitoring

Perhaps the best place to start with managing leaf feeders is with scouting. Most arborists in the field know what the desired tree is supposed to look like, whether it’s a linden, crabapple, oak, hickory, spruce, Kentucky coffeetree, larch, pine, birch or persimmon. When a tree appears slightly different than what you’re used to seeing, a red flag should be raised. Keep in mind that this could be due to an actual disease, insect damage or any number of abiotic causes. For example, the culprit could be compacted soils, deep planting, overwatering, root damage from trenching, previous topping procedures, inadequate infiltration of water on a slope or a nutrient deficiency.

To get a good handle on the initial symptoms of tree insect problems, it’s wise to consult one of the many available references. For fear of leaving some of them out, the authors suggest typing “leaf-feeding insects on trees” into your favorite search engine (Yahoo Image Search, MSN Images and Google Images are examples).

Several good textbooks and mobile device apps are also available. It’s best to start with the ones in your state — or at least your region — as some insects can appear differently from place to place. The sources that include color pictures of early and fullblown signs and symptoms tend to be the most helpful.

Observation of the initial symptoms of a leaf feeders’ presence is of key importance to keeping them in check. When noticed early in the life cycle, before feeding damage is heavy, several options for control may be available. In some situations, the lower recommended rate of a control product can be utilized rather than the higher end of the range, which saves on money for materials as well as puts less insecticide or miticide into the environment and increases the chances for success.

Scouting involves observing differences in a tree’s appearance. You can also investigate by taking a closer look using a hand lens. Factors to consider include recent cultural practices, weather events that took place in the area recently and making comparisons from a tree species one location in the neighborhood to another.

The overall process of inspection is called monitoring, which essentially is a series of individual scouting events. Monitoring usually involves consulting customer records to look for notes on outbreaks of insect and mite problems, their extent, when they occurred and any control measures that were taken.

In terms of scouting frequency, at a minimum, it’s helpful to monitor before and after a pesticide application to confirm the presence of the feeder as well as to determine the effectiveness of the control attempt. Depending on weather conditions and product used, more frequent inspections can be necessary.

Treatment Methods

With relation to leaf feeders, each of the four treatment methods have positives and negatives:
Trunk injection
Pros: Direct product movement into the transport system of the tree and reduced potential for off target site movement of the active ingredients via slopes and drift.
Cons: Tree wounding and time for treatment depending on product choice.
Soil drench
Pros: Direct uptake, especially appropriate for smaller trees.
Cons: Potential for movement to water sources and damage to pets/children.
Basal spray
Pros: Translaminar movement into the xylem, good for smaller trees.
Cons: Certain products aren’t appropriate for this treatment method; drift may be consequential in some landscapes.
Foliar spray:
Pros: Direct contact with pests in vulnerable life stage.
Cons: High potential for drift when wind speeds are greater than 5 to 8 mph.

Selling the program

In order to accomplish the true goals of scouting and monitoring, it’s necessary to sell a program of some type to your customers. After all, waiting for a call from a client to complain that their tree has been damaged allows for tree damage by its very nature. Again, this may be satisfactory for healthy, vigorous trees, but for those that are struggling or have a common number of flaws, it runs short of ideal.

A more proactive approach is to presell a bi-weekly or monthly or seasonally timed inspection program. What do you want to include in the program? Start with the following:

  • Documentation of the species;
  • Condition of the tree;
  • Any observed pests;
  • Previous pest damage evidence;
  • Previous treatments of property’s trees

These programs are commonly referred to as plant health care programs, which are designed to keep the tree healthy and provide for its needs, whatever they may be — soil improvements, pest control, fertilization, pruning, traffic avoidance, replacement, short-term cabling or bracing and tree risk assessment.

A key difference between the two approaches is that the react style of tree care usually involves getting paid for the volume of product that can be sprayed or injected into a tree. The plant health care option hangs its hat on obtaining compensation for an arborist’s training, experience and knowledge, as well as the control measures.

Some classic leaf feeders include:

An elm leaf beetle.

Image Courtesy Of James Kalisch, UNL

Elm leaf beetles

  • They feed on the foliage of European, American and Siberian elms.
  • As an adult, they measure about 0.25 inches long and are yellowish-green with a black stripe on the outside of each wing cover.
  • Larvae reach about 0.375 inches in length and are yellow with black spots and stripes.
  • Overwinters as an adult, hiding in and around buildings or in leaf litter and bark crevices. As new spring foliage begins to expand, these overwintered adults will emerge and begin feeding. After this they mate and lay clusters of yellow eggs on the undersides of leaves.
  • The eggs usually hatch in springs and the emerging larvae will feed and go through three larval stages of growth. The larval stage feeds by skeletonizing the underside of the leaf surface, creating a window pane effect at first and then a lacy leaf later. After feeding for a few weeks, the larvae pupate on the tree trunk and emerge as adults.
  • Adult beetles may also feed on leaves, leaving behind characteristic shot-hole type damage. Heavily infested trees often prematurely lose their leaves.

Spring cankerworm larvae.

Cankerworms and other caterpillars

  • They feed on most species of deciduous trees and some shrubs, but elm and hackberry are their favorites.
  • There are both spring and fall cankerworms and the difference lies in how they spend the winter. Fall cankerworms emerge as adults in fall (October typically), mate and lay eggs that overwinter. Spring cankerworms overwinter in the soil as a pupae and emerge as adults in the spring. Both species’ eggs hatch in the spring and cause damage at the same time of year.
  • It can be hard to tell the species apart, as both are grayish-brown and about 0.312 inches long. Females are wingless while males have greyish-brown wings, with an average wingspan of 1.125 inches.
  • Wingless adults emerge in the spring, when they mate and climb a nearby tree to deposit eggs under flakes of bark on the trunk and branches.
  • The larvae also look very similar, about 1 inch in length and yellowgreen to brownish to blackish.
  • You can distinguish the two species by counting the number of prolegs on the back half of the abdomen; fall cankerworms have three pairs, spring cankerworms only two.
  • Upon hatching, the caterpillars or “measuring worms” feed voraciously on the leaves, at times completely stripping the tree. Severe defoliation over a few consecutive years may weaken, but is unlikely to kill, the tree.
  • After feeding, larvae enter the soil near infested trees to overwinter. There’s only one generation per year.

Spider mites in various life stages

Aphids

  • These occur on almost all species of woody ornamentals. They feed predominately on the undersides of leaves, but also are found on the tender shoots of plants.
  • Most are green, but they can vary in color from pink to black.
  • Aphids have needle-like mouthparts that help them to feed on plant sap. As they feed, they cause plant leaves to curl and their defecation is known as honeydew, a sticky liquid that can coat leaves, branches and even objects under the tree. Honeydew can also serve as a breeding ground for black sooty mold.
  • The best time to control aphids is early in their life cycle, for three reasons. First, smaller aphids succumb to treatments more readily than older and larger ones. For greatest effectiveness, insecticidal sprays should be directed toward the undersides of the leaves.
  • There are several options for aphid control, ranging from organic products like neem, insecticidal soaps, horticultural oils and synthetic insecticides such as permethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin or cyfluthrin.
  • Because aphids have a relatively short life cycle and can regenerate quickly, multiple treatments may be necessary for acceptable control.

Spider mites

  • Although not technically an insect, (insects have six legs and three body parts, while adult mites have eight legs and two body parts) they’re the prototypical sap suckers.
  • Under cool and moist springtime conditions, Spruce spider mites multiply rapidly on conifers such as spruce, juniper and others. Damage isn’t usually noticed until the weather becomes hot and dry later in the summer. As the summer progresses, two-spotted spider mites can become a problem on essentially all landscape ornamentals.
  • Mites can be detected in two ways: First, use a 10-times hand lens to look for moving critters on the underside of a broadleaf tree leaf or on the new growth of a conifer. The body and legs of motionless mites should be clearly visible, while moving mites in motion may simply appear as moving dots. Second, place a white sheet of notebook paper under a branch or group of leaves and rap them with a small stick. If mites are present, they’ll fall onto the paper where they can be easily seen.
  • If one or two mites are found on a leaf, immediate treatment is usually not necessary. But continue to monitor the tree for any changes in the mite population. If more than six to 10 mites appear on the sheet of paper, consider a treatment with a miticide such as bifenthrin (Talstar).
  • While sap-sucking insects may have a common method of feeding, keep in mind that each should be considered individually when it comes to selecting the most appropriate control strategies.

An adult Japanese beetle.

Japanese beetles

  • These are invasive scarab beetles that, as adults, feed on over 400 different kinds of plants. Preferred hosts include lindens, birches, roses and grapes.
  • They’re found in most of the Eastern and Midwestern states.
  • Adults have sharp, chewing mouthparts that skeletonize leaves, eating the green tissue and leaving behind only the veins of the leaf, shred flowers and can hollow out fruit.
  • Control of adults that feed on trees begins before you see the first beetle. Most adults emerge between June and August — if a tree is to be preventatively protected, a systemic application of imidacloprid should be applied to the soil at the base of the tree in April or May to allow the tree to absorb the treatment. (You can’t treat linden trees with any neonicotinoid insecticide.)
  • If you’re treating for already-present adults, bifenthrin, carbaryl and cyfluthrin all provide two to four weeks of residual protection. Chlorantraniliprole also offers four weeks of protection, with minimal effects on nontarget organisms such as pollinators.
  • Organic products like neem and pyola protect leaves and need to be reapplied every three to seven days, depending on the weather and pest pressure.

Bagworm.

Bagworms

  • These are common pests of evergreens, junipers and occasionally deciduous trees and shrubs.
  • The case or bag that provides a home for the bagworm caterpillar — which gives the insect its name — is constructed of silk and fragments of leaves or needles.
  • Bagworms overwinter as eggs within the bags. In the spring, during the first or second week of June, tiny larvae hatch from eggs and immediately begin construction of small protective bags.
  • Caterpillars feed from within their bags and move along the branch in search of food. Applying Bt in June, when the larvae are small, is the best control strategy.

(by JOHN C. FECH AND ONATHAN LARSON )

Courtesy of Tree Services Magazine: http://www.treeservicesmagazine.com)

Friction Management 101

How to use the force of friction to your advantage in tree climbing operations.


cambium saver in step 1


The force of friction plays a major role in almost every aspect of tree care professionals’ daily work activities. All of the hitches and knots that are so vital to climbing arborists for attaching or securing themselves and other objects to lines and cordage rely on some degree of friction to stay tied in place. Friction works to a tree crew’s advantage when carrying out rigging operations when they use the friction generated by a lowering device or tree wraps to lower wood and branches under control. Yet, a similar form of friction to the one that allows these experts to lower huge loads safely and securely can be inefficient when attempting to ascend into the tree.

This would be friction present at the tie-in point (TIP). Conventional and traditional climbing involves simply running the climbing line over a branch or around the trunk in the desired location for the TIP; and though this practice may seem to be simple and easy, the friction generated by the rope on bark/wood contact takes quite a toll on the user, the climbing line and the tree. There are a variety of commercially available friction-reduction devices that can be used to better manage this friction at the TIP, and also a myriad of ways that climbing arborists can create their own out of appropriately rated slings, carabiners and pulleys once they understand the advantages of reduced friction aloft.

Cambium Saver Step 2

Cambium saver

The cambium saver is simply a sewn leather tube shaped in a curve. The climbing line passes through it, reducing the amount of friction the climber has to work against while also protecting both rope and bark from excessive wear and heat due to mutual contact. Once the desired TIP is attained with the throwline, the end of the climbing line, with the cambium saver already installed on it, is pulled up into the TIP. A slipknot beneath the device keeps it in place on the rope and allows the user to release it from the ground, installing the cambium saver over or around the desired TIP. Removal is easily accomplished by tying an overhand knot in the climbing line, pulling it up to the device and simply pulling it out to remove it.

Cambium Saver Step 3

Friction saver

The friction saver, manufactured by Buckingham Manufacturing, consists of a large and small ring at opposite ends of a webbing strap. The climber’s rope passes through the rings after installation, reducing friction while still protecting the tree and rope from contact with each other. The installation of a small Prusik cord on the device also allows it to be used in a choking fashion when spur climbing or when no branch attachment point is present at the desired TIP, though the choking feature cannot be installed from the ground.

Friction Saver Step 1

Friction Saver Step 2

Friction Saver Step 3

Friction Saver Step 4

Rope guide

This device, developed and manufactured by Advanced Ropeclimbing Technology (ART), employs both a camming system to allow it to be choked against the tree or let out to the desired length, and a smooth and fluid pulley that the climbing line passes through. The design of the device prevents excessive contact between rope and tree. Although the rope guide can be installed from the ground with some imagination, it is not as simple a process as some of the other devices discussed here; and is most commonly carried aloft while footlocking to be installed by hand once the desired TIP has been reached. The device can be removed from the ground either by a second line installed when aloft or through the use of a Double Snapper, also from ART, for remote retrieval.

rope guide at TIP

A rope guide installed at the desired TIP with the climbing line running over the smooth pulley. Photo: Michael (House) Tain

fimblSAVER

The fimblSAVER by Teufelberger is a ring-and-ring friction saver with a 17-cm-wide surface to help prevent damage to tree bark. The two stainless steel thimbles allow the climbing rope to run smoothly during canopy work. The 10-cm-long and tapering longitudinal seam makes it easy for the user to pull the cambium saver off. The fimblSAVER can be set and retrieved from the ground and includes a retrieval ball.

BuckBlocks or MagBloc

BuckBlocks, also from Buckingham Manufacturing, provide the capability to climb out of an actual block at the TIP, improving the rope’s bend radius and reducing friction immensely, while still being easily installed and removed from the ground through the use of a throwline. The rope, once installed, runs through a rope channel across the two rotating sheaves, while the separate halves of the device are held securely together by rare earth magnets. The amount of friction reduction, due to the two rotating sheaves, is greater than either the cambium or friction saver, while still protecting both the tree and rope from contact and associated wear.

DIY devices

Climbing arborists who wish to create their own friction management device rather than purchase one are only limited by their imagination, and the always important breaking strength standards for personal support. Any variety of straps, slings, spliced-rope tools, connecting links and pulleys can be combined to reduce friction at the TIP; and with some time or thought, allow for easy installation and retrieval from the ground.

Managing friction effectively at the TIP will not only help climbing arborists work more safely and efficiently, but also increase the lifespan of their ropes while reducing heat and friction damage to the trees they are there to care for. Although this brief introduction cannot fully encompass the various advantages and disadvantages of specific friction management devices, it does provide a glimpse into the possibilities and an introduction to their use.

(Courtesy of Tree Services Magazine: http://www.treeservicesmagazine.com)

 

Chainsaw Safety: Understanding Rotational Kickback

For many arborists, a chain saw is an everyday tool. With such regular, frequent use, it can be easy to slip into complacency. Knowing and understanding chain saw kickback can help prevent accidents or injury. (By Kevin Myers)

No matter how long you’ve been in the tree care industry, remembering and following safety best management practices in your day-to-day work can be one of the most important things you accomplish each and every day. For many who are involved in the tree care industry, there’s an inherent element of risk – but we can mitigate that risk by staying on top of established safety guidelines. For those who regularly work with chain saws, kickback is potentially one of the most dangerous and devastating safety hazards we may encounter.

trio-brake-ad

The sudden, unexpected and forceful movement – kick – of an operating chain saw can cause serious injury to an unprepared operator. And it can happen to even the most skilled chain saw user. None of this is new – kickback is widely understood and just about every regular chain saw user is aware of it. So why do accidents continue to occur? What can we be doing to prevent kickback accidents? It starts with an understanding of kickback and what causes it to occur – and ends with always remaining vigilant when it comes to safe chain saw operation and maintenance.

Understanding kickback:

Any chain saw is a powerful piece of equipment. No matter the size of the individual saw, significant force and power keep the cutting chain rotating at high speeds so as to effi-ciently cut through wood. Throughout operation, that force that keeps the chain moving is acting just the same on the body of the saw as it is on the chain itself. With an operator holding the body of the saw steady, the force causes the chain to rotate as intended. But when the chain’s rotation is suddenly halted, all that force has to go somewhere, and the momentum is transferred, forcing the saw to pivot up and back toward the operator. This is commonly known as rotational kickback. That sudden, split-second halt is usually caused by a cutter tooth of the chain  being exposed to a larger bite of wood as it passes the upper quadrant of the guidebar’s tip, or when it comes in contact with a foreign object. (Graphics 1 & 2)

graphic-1

graphic-2

Why does this happen? Under ordinary circumstances, the saw chain very quickly shaves many thin strips of wood out of a cut. Think of a bench planer, if you’re familiar, which is generally used to remove a thin top layer of a piece of wood; a saw chain operates similarly, but far more rapidly. Those thin cuts are critical here.

The depth of each individual cut made by the saw chain is determined by the raker, or depth gauge. The raker passes across the top of the existing cut, or wood surface, and determines the thickness of material being shaved off by the leading edge of the cutter tooth.

Depending on the manufacturer of the chain and the type of wood being cut, the depth-gauge setting can range from approximately 0.018-inch to 0.030-inch – and this depth is maintained throughout the length of the guide bar. But in the upper quadrant of that bar’s tip – also known as the kickback zone – the chain strikes wood at an angle, dropping the raker below the cutting tooth as it passes, causing more wood to be exposed to the cutter tooth. When that happens, it can cause the tooth to suddenly, momentarily stop, transferring that momentum into a potential kickback event.

Limiting kickback and injury:

While there are advanced cutting methods such as bore cutting that involve intentionally sticking the tip of the bar into a piece of wood or tree, kickback most often occurs when that upper quadrant comes into contact with wood or other material unintentionally. While bucking a large log, for instance, an operator may unintentionally strike a branch or another log behind his target with the tip of the bar, which may result in kickback.

With that understood, prevention is a matter of knowing when, where and how you’re cutting so as to reduce the likelihood of unintentional contact with the kickback zone. But it’s also a matter of knowing how to prepare and handle yourself – and your saw – in order to reduce the likelihood of kickback-related injury.

Much of that depends on proper technique and paying attention at all times to how, where and what you’re cutting. Know where the tip of the bar is at all times during operation. Pay attention to what is on the opposite side of the wood you’re cutting. Always be mindful of the potential for hidden objects that can cause kickback.

Proper form when holding and operating the chain saw is also critically important. Per the ANSI Z133 safety standard, “A chain saw shall be operated with the left hand and thumb gripped fi rmly around the forward handle and the right hand and thumb gripped fi rmly around the rear handle,” unless doing so poses a greater threat than doing otherwise. Another good practice here is to lock the left arm during operation so as not to form a pivot point at the elbow. The standard further states that the operator must be in a stable body position before beginning a cut.

Safety devices, maintenance and inspection:

Many modern chain saws have incorporated enhanced safety measures such as protective coverings for the entirety of the bar tip, low-kickback or reduced-kickback chains, and chain brakes. The chain brake is one of the most important safety implements on the chain  saw.  The chain brake stops the movement of the saw’s cutting chain, and is often used to prevent accidental acceleration of the chain when carrying the saw or switching cutting positions.

Most saws are equipped with two types of braking systems, a mechanical braking system and an inertia braking system. Some saw manufacturers are now offering a third braking option such as Husqvarna’s TrioBrake, which employs a second mechanical brake at the rear of the saw, and Stihl’s Quickstop Plus option, where the brake engages when your right hand is removed from the rear handle of the saw. During a kickback event, the chain brake can be employed to stop a rotating chain – and though being struck by a static chain is no picnic, it’s far better than being struck by a chain moving at full speed.

Critically, it takes regular inspection and maintenance to ensure that all of these safety devices are in proper working order. Always follow manufacturer recommendations through all aspects of equipment care, paying particular attention to the functionality of your safety devices.

Always remain vigilant:

Like many safety hazards in our industry, chain saw kickback tends to occur during moments of complacency and when we least expect it. Adherence to best management practices on the job will limit accident or injury. It’s important to always remain attentive to the little details that make our jobs go smoothly each day.

*Kevin Myers is an ISA Certified Arborist and ISA-Certified Utility Specialist, and an arborist training instructor with ACRT, Inc., a 31-year TCIA associate member company based in Akron, Ohio. He is also a recipient of the 2016 Utility Arborist Association (UAA) Silver Shield Award.

*Courtesy of TCI Magazine-http://tcia.org/TCI-publications/tci-magazine/2016/10/index.html

HEAT ILLNESS CAN BE DEADLY

Heat illness can be deadly.  On July 23rd the tree care industry lost another worker, this time from heat stroke. With this year’s exceptionally warm weather, we want to remind you of the danger signs, and steps you should take to prevent heat-related health issues. The body typically cools itself by sweating.  However, while working in extreme heat, sweating may not be sufficient to keep your core temperature in a safe range.

To prevent heat-related illnesses, you should work in the shade when possible, drink lots of water and take periodic rest breaks. If you stop sweating, stop working immediately and cool down.

heat_main4

Body temperature can rise quickly and cause life-threatening illnesses like heat exhaustion or heat stroke. One of the first signs of heat related illness is heat rash and heat cramps.

If you start experiencing a sudden rash or severe muscle cramps, you are entering the danger zone for heat-related health issues. This is a key indicator that your core temperature is starting to rise and you should get cooled down. The next stages, heat exhaustion and heat stroke, both require immediate medical attention, so paying attention early can save your day and ultimately your life.

If you or a coworker are feeling weak, have clammy skin, a racing pulse or nauseous feeling, you are experiencing heat exhaustion. Medical attention should be sought right away. If you’re in a tree, get down. You don’t want to have to be rescued when you progress to the point of unconsciousness.

heat_main2

If your skin or a coworker’s skin is hot or wet, temperature is high, pulse is rapid or consciousness is lost, heat stroke is in full force and the person requires emergency medical attention. This is when 911 is called and, if the person suffering heat stroke is in the tree, it is time to perform an aerial rescue.  Time is of the essence so know the symptoms and react.

Everyone knows that tree work is tough. At the end of the day, everyone should go home to their families.  You don’t run your truck without coolant or when the engine temperature spikes. Don’t push your body further than you would push your truck. The results can be deadly.

 

 

FOOTLOCKING TECHNIQUES FOR CLIMBING

  The Devil’s in the Details

A proper understanding of footlocking is an excellent addition to a climbing arborist’s repertoire

Footlocking, a method of efficient and speedy ascent into the canopy, has played a role in the tree industry for many years. While the ropes and gear used when footlocking have changed over time, the basic process has remained the same – a case of “if it ain’t broke, don’t fix it.” But the safety requirements around footlocking have evolved to reflect, and hopefully promote, a safer use of this valuable ascent method.

A history lesson

Not that long ago – in fact, within the fading memory banks of more than a few grizzled tree veterans out there – the footlock was performed with no back-up, or unsecured. The climber would ascend his or her line into the canopy attached to the doubled rope only by the strength and dexterity of his or her hands and feet. Should either fade, or the climber simply become exhausted, a quick and painful reminder that gravity was the law was sure to ensue.

This unsecured footlock technique usage even extended to the climbing competitions of the time, with climbers being required to demonstrate an ability to carry out an on-rope rest prior to competing. The idea was that an exhausted climber, or one who found his or her hands and feet growing more clumsy, could slip into the on-rope rest until he or she recovered, and hopefully not slip rapidly toward the unyielding earth.

Martin Morales demonstrates proper hand placement when footlocking with his hands beneath the hitch.

While unsecured footlocking certainly had a tendency to keep the user’s mind very focused on the task at hand, it also was, and is, a recipe for disaster, soft tissue injuries and orthopedic trauma. Any modern-day climbing arborist using the footlock in the ascent must do so in a secured manner, thus the term “secured footlock.”

Footlocking fysics, or phootlocking physics

The most common method of security or attachment is a length of cordage used to form a variety of hitches around the ascent line, typically a doubled line, then attached to the climber. Modern manufacturers also have developed mechanical devices that can be used to secure the footlock; these methods are becoming more common.

The footlocking technique can be applied in any variety of climbing systems, from single to double rope, and static to dynamic, but its true efficiency is best shown and seen in a static line. Footlocking on a static line, or lines, results in the user ascending at a one-to-one ratio, meaning that all his or her effort results in height gained.

While it may be slightly difficult to conceptualize, footlocking in a dynamic system, where the line is moving during the ascent, means the climber expends less effort due to some mechanical advantage, but has to move twice as much rope, roughly moving 2 feet to ascend 1 foot.

Martin Morales demonstrates the proper use of the feet in this ascent method, literally “footlocking” the rope.

Talking hitches

The requirements for the hitch or knot used when secured footlocking are fairly simple; any secure climbing hitch that grips the rope adequately when loaded is acceptable. A wide variety of knots or hitches is used, with more seemingly being developed and promulgated yearly, but the most common is the Prusik.

After the footlocking technique has been practiced and learned into muscle memory, a good footlocker’s body weight is almost never brought to bear on the Prusik or hitch, except in cases of needed rest, repositioning or emergency. The chosen hitch can be formed from a length of cordage tied to itself with appropriate knots into an endless loop, or a spliced/stitched rope tool manufactured specifically for footlocking. The cordage used must, of course, meet the strength requirements for personal/life support in whatever geographical area in which the climber is operating; in the U.S., that’s 5,400 pounds.

In addition, the line used for the hitch should be somewhat smaller than the ascent line to increase its grip when loaded. Climbers using strong enough but extremely small-diameter cordage may find it grips too well when loaded, and is difficult to loosen to continue in the ascent. Should the secured footlock climber choose to use a Prusik, he or she will find forming it on the ascent line is a relatively simple process: The loop or rope tool is passed back through itself three times, forming a six-coil, three-wrap Prusik. Additional wraps/coils will provide more security, but may increase friction, making advancing the hitch difficult.

Martin Morales steps off onto a branch after ascending by footlocking and securing himself with a work positioning lanyard.

Going up

While there are certainly techniques and tools that can allow a climber to both ascend and descend safely on a static line, the secured footlock hitches/method discussed here is not one of them.

Climbers using the footlock technique on a static line(s), regardless of the hitch securing them to the ascent line, must remember that they’re in a static system. This means their hitch is bearing the load of their entire body weight, instead of the half borne by the hitch in a dynamic system. Thus, the Prusik or chosen secured footlock hitch must be used for ascent only, as an attempt to use it descending may result in an uncontrolled fall due to the change in forces.

Some examples of descent devices that should accompany any ascending secured footlocker.

This means that users must always have some means of descent with them, and should not count on their dynamic system as this means of descent, as they may need to descend while not in a location where it is possible to switch over safely to a dynamic system. Some common descent devices that can be put into place while hanging on a static line(s) are any of the wide variety of figure eights, Petzl Piranhas, etc.

Footlockers using a single line, with the required training and experience, of course, could certainly use static single-line devices such as the Rope Wrench or Hitchhiker in this application.

The climber’s hands must always remain below the Prusik or hitch, and the length of cordage used should be adjusted accordingly. This practice will prevent the climber from inadvertently grabbing the hitch causing it to release, and leading to an uncontrolled descent in the static system.

An example of the grapevine knot, often used to secure the ends of a piece of cordage together to form an endless loop for the secured footlock hitch or Prusik.

Width is bad

A doubled ascent line that is spread apart by being over a branch or through a crotch can cause hitches that are pushed into this spread to fail in a doubled-line static system. The “spread parts of the line will literally push the coils of the hitch apart, reducing their grip. An excellent guideline to avoid advancing the hitch into this spread is to follow a five-to-one ratio; for every 1 inch of branch diameter, keep the hitch 5 inches below the branch.

Additional options to avoid the problem of spread are:

  • using friction management devices such as a Friction Saver,
  • using the footlock technique on a single line,
  • or tying an appropriate mid-line knot, such as the Alpine Butterfly or Blackwater Knot, passing one end of the ascent line through it, and running the Alpine Butterfly up beneath the branch, thereby resulting in a doubled static line with no spread.

Junk and whatnot

Twigs, sticks and even leaves getting between the two parts of the ascent line or into the coils/wraps of the hitch or Prusik may cause it to fail when loaded. Climbers should monitor their hitch during the ascent and remove any debris as soon as possible, as those wee pieces and parts can reduce the grip of the formed hitch on the ascent line.

A variety of rope tools that can be used to create the securing hitch in secured footlock.

The secured footlock is certainly a technique that, for most, isn’t picked up “straight out of the box;” and requires a certain amount of focused effort and practice. But once its limitations and advantages are understood, and some effort spent developing the muscle memory required for feet and hand coordination, the secured footlock can provide a safe and efficient highway into the canopy for climbers.

 Courtesy of Tree Services Magazine: http://www.treeservicesmagazine.com)

SLIP SLIDIN’ AWAY-SLIDE LINES-Part I

Photo by Michael (House) Tain

Slide lines can save considerable time, energy and money.

Tree folk are confronted on a daily basis by the need to move something, usually awkward woody debris, from one place to another in an efficient manner. Often this involves a great deal of “sweat equity” with crew members physically carrying branches, logs and wood to the truck or chipper, typically with a fair amount of physical effort, energy expenditure and negative verbal commentary.

Slide lines, also often called zip or speed lines, offer another option for this debris movement. They’re an option that, though gear- and set-up-intensive, can be quite efficient, not to mention easier on a tree crew’s back and morale.

Port-A-Wrap

A Port-A-Wrap attached to the base of a tree with an eye sling. This piece of gear has excellent applications in slide lines, both for control line management and slide line tensioning.

Slide line use may be dictated by the worksite – for example, if there are hazards or obstacles immediately beneath or around the tree being worked on – or they simply can eliminate a long, tedious route of dragging debris to the truck or chipper. Slide lines often are used in concert with other techniques, such as balancing, lifting, knotless rigging and spar pole removal. Regardless of the application, the complex nature of slide lines and the forces they generate require an understanding of multiple factors to ensure their safe and efficient use.

Sometimes the “old school” method of just buckling down and sweating away at hauling that brush will be the safest and most efficient method. But, given the right situation, a knowledge of slide lines can get the job done safely and efficiently with energy savings all around.

Which line for sliding?

As is so often the case in tree care operations, one of the first questions to be answered in slide line use is which type of rope to use. Factors such as strength, elongation or stretch, and melting point all need to be considered, as they can have significant impacts on how well the slide line operation will go.

As an example, a line with more elongation will absorb energy more readily than a more static rope, but will require a great deal more input force, or pulling, to make it taut to “slide” loads down.

In turn, this requirement for more input force will require more time and energy, thereby making the use of the slide line perhaps not the quicker, more efficient choice it was meant to be.

Conversely, a very static line, or one with little elongation, will not stretch much when loaded, but will transmit all the input force to the anchor points of the slide line, possibly creating another area of concern.

Dynamic Loads

“Catching” a dynamic load prior to tensioning the slide line is key for safe use of this technique.

Only as strong as what it’s tied off to

The anchor points to which the slide line is tied or secured also must be evaluated in the use of this technique. The line carrying the load will have a lot of tension and force on it, both from the initial input force to make it taut and the weight of the load being transported. These factors will be transmitted directly to the anchor points at either end of the slide line.

Of particular concern is the anchor point aloft, especially when the point chosen is in the same tree to which the climbing arborist is attached, as it can create a bending moment that can cause failure in the tree itself. A better option is to anchor the upper end of the slide line into a separate tree, thereby avoiding any additional forces on the tree being worked on, although this might not be possible. Should a second tree be unavailable, or simply poorly positioned, the correct use of appropriate redirects can reduce the forces involved while anchoring the slide line adequately.

In addition, the lower anchor should be adjustable, so that tension can be applied and removed.

(Courtesy of Tree Services Magazine: http://www.treeservicesmagazine.com)

SLIP SLIDIN’ AWAY-SLIDE LINES-Part II

When tight is too tight

The slide line itself should never be under tension when the load to be transported is brought to bear on it. Dropping a load into a taut slide line is a sure recipe for an emergency room visit accompanied by a trip to an arborist retailer to replace broken ropes and gear.

If the situation/scenario requires dynamic rigging, or a load that needs to drop a certain distance, a secondary line and rigging system should be used to control and absorb that force, after which the load is attached to the slide line for transport.

The slide line is then put under tension and the load sent along its journey to its intended destination.

There are many ways to tension and loosen the slide line, such as fiddle blocks, tensioning kits with Prusik minding pulleys, or a device such as the Good Rigging Control System, all of which can be fairly user-friendly. Using trucks, skid steers or ATVs to tension slide lines is a very poor choice, as it can easily result in broken gear, trees and even climbers or crewmembers.

Control is key

Except for extremely small or light loads, some form of control line should be employed to control the speed of “sliding” on descent; without one, even loads that are thought to be extremely small or light will appear to be traveling fairly rapidly to the crew at the receiving end. In addition, loads “sliding” down without any control line will increase the heat input on the slide line, perhaps making the melting point an even more important consideration. When properly set up, the control line need not involve any additional rigging, and can simply be the rope that was used to “catch” the dynamic load prior to the slide line being tensioned.

Consideration also should be given to the manner in which the control line will be “controlled,” as relying on a crewmember’s grip strength when sliding a 250-pound log toward the brand-new chipper may be a poor choice. A Port-A-Wrap or other friction management device might be a better option.

Good Riggine Control

A good rigging control system attached to the side of the chip truck, which is an extremely user-friendly option for slide line tensioning and control line management.

PHOTO: JAMZ LUCE

Traveling and carrying

A traveler or carriage is the item to which the load is attached, which “slides” down the line to its final destination. Many pieces of arborist gear can be used in this application, but with a wide variety of performance levels.

The simplest carriage might be some form of carabiner or snap, but users should keep in mind that the friction generated will not only slow the load’s travel but create a great deal of heat input in the slide line. Any number of pulleys are available, from single to multiple sheaves that will travel quite smoothly and generate less friction, but users should evaluate any pulley used for the necessary strength and appropriate design for the load involved.

Having multiple travelers or carriages on hand not only will assist in moving larger or longer loads, but will make the process more efficient as the climber can prepare the next shipment while the previous one is being removed from the slide line.

Slide lines aren’t required in every situation, but, when used appropriately, they can save a great deal of time, energy and money. Once added to an arborist’s mental toolbox, they can make seemingly endless brush hauls slip and slide away.

 (Courtesy of Tree Services Magazine: http://www.treeservicesmagazine.com)

Staying Aware, Staying Protected

COVER PHOTO BY KEVEN MENGERS

If you aren’t working safe, you aren’t working for long.

Modern-day tree crews spend hours of labor and sweat equity every day making large amounts of wood, branches, brush and miscellaneous green and brown stuff disappear, hopefully in a safe and timely manner. While the climbing and complex rigging required to create these veritable mountains of debris often get a great deal of focus – and rightfully so – the tools, equipment and methods to make it disappear are equally important and dangerous to a tree crew’s job.

The industrial gear and equipment that makes this brush and wood “disappearing act” so easy is just as likely to “disappear” an inattentive or unsafe crew member, so a basic understanding of its safe and efficient use helps increase the effectiveness and safety of a tree crew. Operators, crew leaders, and company owners should think of required personal protective equipment (PPE) as not only required by law or regulations, but an inexpensive way to prevent injury and loss of work time. After all, the costs for a head injury caused by not wearing a hard hat or helmet will far exceed the cost of the actual helmet.

As mentioned previously, while PPE is an important step, it is only one step, and hopefully good planning, communication and safe work techniques among the crew members will prevent the PPE from having to be put to the test. PPE requirements vary only slightly between chain saws, chippers and stump cutters, with leg protection – typically chain saw resistant chaps or pants – being that variation.

PHOTO: MICHAEL (HOUSE) TAIN

While leg protection may not specifically be required (depending on geographic location) while operating a stump grinder or chipper, it certainly is recommended for safety and efficiency. Chippers often will require additional cuts being made on the brush being fed, usually for ease of feeding or to deal with a poor interaction between the feed wheels and the wood/brush structure.

While stump grinding or cutting, leg protection can provide some additional padding and protection from flying stones and debris, even though not technically “required.” Face screens on hard hats or helmets, typically of a wire mesh, also can help shield the operator’s good looks from any quickly moving twigs when chipping, or stones, chips and soil when stump grinding. However, users should keep in mind that the mesh screens do not qualify as eye protection, so safety glasses or goggles must also be worn. Some face shields – typically made of high-impact plastic – do qualify as both shields and eye protection, so this also is an option for crew members reluctant to wear two items.

Chain saws

Chain saws are required by law and standard to have certain safety features to be legal to operate; thus, the removal or disabling of any of those features makes the saw illegal, not to mention unsafe. The required safety features include the chain brake, chain catcher, throttle interlock and spark arrestor.

A few basic operational pointers can help a great deal in making sure chain saws are run safely:

  • Chain saws should be started with the chain brake engaged and in a position that will minimize the movement of the saw when the cord is pulled. The left hand should be gripping the grab (or front) handle of the saw, and the right on the pull handle of the starter cord. Two simple and efficient methods are bracing the chain saw against the ground when starting, or locking it behind the right knee while bracing it on the left thigh when starting it while standing, often called the leg lock start.
  • Chain saws should never be drop started when being used on the ground. This is not only dangerous but also hard on the saw’s starter cord/recoil mechanism.
  • The chain brake should be engaged whenever taking more than two steps with a running chain saw. This is due to the possibility of tripping and falling while grabbing at the throttle trigger and falling toward a running chain.
  • The saw should be operated from a well-balanced body position using both hands on the appropriate handles, with the thumbs and fingers wrapped around them, and should never be operated above shoulder height.
  • Kickback, the sudden violent movement of the saw back toward the user, can occur when the upper quadrant of the tip of the bar comes in contact with wood, brush or debris. Chain saw operators should be aware at all times of the location of the tip of the bar when cutting, and take measures to prevent the upper quadrant from coming into contact with any objects that might generate kickback.

Chippers

While there is a wide variety of chippers available and in use by tree crews, all of them have certain basic required safety features, and, in many cases, manufacturer-specific safety options. Operators should familiarize themselves with the safety features and operational procedures of their particular brand of chipper.

Basic safe and efficient chipper operation techniques would include:

  • Loose or torn clothing, dangling jewelry, long, unsecured hair, and gauntlet-style gloves all should be avoided when operating a chipper.
  • Brush and limbs should be fed in butt-first while standing off to one side or the other of the feed table. The curb side of the feed table is preferable, particularly in a roadside work environment.
  • Chipper operators should never reach into the feed area or attempt to kick brush or chunks into the feed wheels.
  • Crew members should be aware of, and prepared for, the possibility of violent movement from the end of the piece as it is seized by the feed wheels. Particular attention should be paid to which type of feed wheels the chipper has, as horizontal feed wheels will obviously cause different movements than vertical ones. As an example, horizontal feed wheels can cause violent movement up and down at the butt of the piece, typically where the person feeding the chipper is, while vertical wheels will cause the same movement in a side-to-side fashion.
  • For both efficiency and safety, branches, limbs and logs should be cut with the chain saw appropriately to facilitate safer and easier movement into the chipper and through the feed wheels.
  • “Dirty” brush – limbs with sand, mud or gravel on them – and rakings should not be fed into the chipper, as this will quickly take a toll on its knives and operation.

Stump grinders/cutters

Regardless of size, make or model, all stump grinders have inherent features designed to make them safe and efficient; and operators should be familiar with all these safety features prior to use.

Some basic safe and efficient stump grinding steps:

  • All stump cutters are equipped with various guards and barriers designed to reduce the likelihood of flying debris during operation; these barriers must be in place during operation.
  • Grinder operators should continually observe the cutting area for stones, construction debris or other objects that could become a projectile or damage the cutter teeth.
  • Care should be taken to locate any possible underground utilities prior to beginning stump-cutting operations.
  • When the cutter wheel is in motion, the operator should never leave the control station, move or shift the stump cutter’s position or reach into the cutting area with tools or body parts to remove stones or debris.

While it’s easy to focus on the “glamour” work of tree care, swinging gracefully around the canopy, lowering the huge top of the tree safely and smoothly, tree crews should not neglect training and awareness of proper ways to clean up and dispose of woody debris, as it is equally dangerous. Crew members should keep in mind that the chipper that barely “burps” over a 12-inch-diameter section of pin oak would just as easily consume them. After all, the chippers, chain saws and stump cutters can’t distinguish between wood and human. It is up to the operator to use it safely to prevent a tragic mistake.

(Courtesy of Tree Services Magazine: http://www.treeservicesmagazine.com)

Techniques for Safe Rigging

Professional arborists know that using the right rigging technique can mean the difference between a job well done and a job that takes much longer than intended to complete. Here are 4 tried-and-true methods that professional arborists use to get the job done quickly and safely.

RIGGING SAMSON PIC
Photo Courtesy of Samson Ropes –  www.samsonrope.com

Spider Leg Rigging

When rigging down limbs, it is best to keep them in a horizontal position. Spider leg
rigging is a wonderful way to achieve this goal. It is especially useful when rigging low
hanging limbs that are within close distance to buildings or other objects.  Spider leg rigging is often used in conjunction with a speed line, but the spider leg sling needs
to use a smaller diameter of rope than the actual rigging line for safety and efficiency.

Butt Tying

Butt tying is a simple form of rigging and proves that the simplest method, when done
correctly can be the fastest and most productive. Arborists who practice butt tying find
that it is most useful when a loop runner is used in combination with a steel carabiner.
The loop rope is attached approximately 2 feet from the butt end of the branch.
The branch is then lowered down by its tips. For the best results make sure the
rigging block is placed high in the tree. The point of placement should be above the
pre-designated drop zone.

Tip Tying

As with butt tying, this method is most effective when a loop runner is used along
with a steel carabiner. However, unlike butt tying, tip tying requires the rope to be
attached as far out on the branch as possible; hence the name, tip tying. The tip tying
method encourages the limb to swing around laterally to avoid hitting objects below.

Speedline Rigging

When conventional rigging methods are not the best choice, professional arborists opt to
use speedline rigging. This method consists of the following 3 steps:

  • A rigging line is attached either high in the tree that is coming down or a tree behind it.
  • A webbing strap (loop runner) is affixed to the branch that is to be manipulated.
  • The webbing strap is then attached to a pulley found on the speedline.

When speedline rigging is used, it is important that the line is properly tensioned to
reduce droop so the branch and pulley can run smoothly. A haul line should always be
attached to help control the descent of the branch.


The rigging techniques discussed in this article are used by arborists throughout
the United States and are highly effective for removing dead branches and bringing
down trees. It’s important to keep in mind that these techniques must only be used
by arborists that have the proper training and certification.

Arboring is a dangerous occupation. It requires precise attention to detail and
a high regard for safety. Homeowners that hire professional tree trimmers to remove
dead branches from their trees need to make sure the person working at their home has
a solid safety record to ensure that the job goes as smoothly as possible.

Guest Post written by Tyler Lamb of  Excel Tree Care, Cumming, Georgia.
Visit their website at: www.exceltreecare.com.